Champlain, Samuel


Champlain, Samuel
(1567?-1635)
   WM His elevated sentiments, 20. Ch Birth and education, 1; sails to West Indies, Mexico, and Panama in command of Spanish vessel, 3, 4; suggests channel through isthmus, 5; captures English vessels and returns to France, 6; publishes account of travels, 7; obtains pension and made hydrographer to king of France, 8; accepts offer of Aymar de Chastes of Dieppe to go to Canada, 9; arrives at Tadoussac, 10; explores Saguenay, 12; ascends St. Lawrence to Sault St. Louis, anchors at Quebec, and explores Gaspesia, 13; sails for France, 14; submits narrative of his voyages to the king, 14; accompanies De Monts to Acadia, 19; explores country and gives names to places, 19; describes river St. John, 20; discovers a copper mine, 22; makes plan of Ste. Croix Island, 24; explores coast of Norembega, 25; describes Pentagouet (Penobscot) River, 27; further explorations, 30; describes settlement at Port Royal, 32; returns to France, 37; sails for Quebec, 40; resists Basque traders, 40; arrives at Quebec, 41; conspiracy formed against, 42; execution of chief conspirator, 43; explores vicinity of Quebec, 44; illness, 46; fits out expedition against Iroquois, 47; conference with Huron chiefs, 48; his Indian policy, 49-52; encounter with Iroquois on Lake Champlain, 53; sails for France, 54; has audience with the king, 55; consults with De Monts, 56; returns to Canada, 59; arrives at Quebec, 61; proceeds again to attack Iroquois, 61; wounded in encounter near mouth of Richelieu River, 62; returns to Quebec, 63; hears of the assassination of Henry IV, and sails for France, 64; marries Hélène Boullé, 65-67; returns to Canada, 67; arrives at Quebec, 68; makes a clearing at Montreal, 69; names St. Helen's Island after his wife, 69; sails for France, 70; final interview with De Monts, 71; motives for pursuing his work in Canada, 72, 82; becomes lieutenant in Canada of Charles de Bourbon, Comte de Soissons, 73; on death of Soissons, becomes lieutenant of the Prince de Condé and returns to Canada, 73; arrives at Quebec and proceeds to Falls of St. Louis, 74; goes up the Ottawa River, 75; his astrolabe, 76; sails for France, 79; engages the services of missionaries for Canada, 83; brings to Canada three Récollet fathers and one friar, 85; arriving at Quebec, proceeds to Falls of St. Louis, 85; ascends Ottawa River, passes through Lake Nipissing into Georgian Bay and reaches territory of Hurons, 88; proceeds with Hurons on another campaign against Iroquois, 101; wounded in fight with Iroquois, 103; desires to return to Quebec, but is detained by Hurons, 103; settles quarrel between Algonquians and Hurons, 105; returns to Quebec, 106; convokes meeting to consider question of missions, 108; sails for France, 111; returns to Canada (1617), 112; sails for France (1618), 116; returns to Canada (1620), 121; his projects for the advancement of Canada, 124, 125; obtains letter from the king in his favour, 126; his commission renewed by Duc de Montmorency, 129; takes his wife to Canada, 129; receives letters from Montmorency and the king, 130, 131; his difficulties with rival Companies, 132, 136; confirmed as lieutenant of viceroy, 137; salary and trading privileges, 138; publishes ordinances, 139; returns to France with his wife (1624), 141; meets Montmorency, 150; appointed by the Duc de Ventadour as his lieutenant, 152; sails for Canada (1626), 155; arrives at Quebec, 156; fortifies Cape Diamond, 157; reconstructs Fort St. Louis, 158; his treatment of the Indians, 159; tries to make an alliance with Iroquois, 160; his policy towards the Montagnais, 162; imprisons Montagnais suspected of murder, 165; receives three young Montagnais girls to be educated, 165; one of the Hundred Associates (Company of New France), 170; forms establishment at Cap Tourmente, 171; criticizes conduct of Roquemont, 175; summoned by David Kirke to surrender Quebec, 176; his answer, 178; builds mill for grinding pease, 180; sends part of population of Quebec to Gaspé, 181; asserts superiority of his commission over Pont-Grave's, 182; summoned by Kirke to surrender Quebec, 188; capitulates, 190; his action criticized, 192, 193; signs articles of capitulation on board Kirke's ship, 195; delayed several weeks at Tadoussac, 204; his two Indian girls, Esperance and Charité, taken back by the Indians, 205; embarks for France, 206; goes to London and sees French ambassador, 207; shows him map of the country, 211; names given by, to harbours and rivers of New England, 212; crosses over to France, and has interview with the king, 212; returns to Quebec (1633), 228; takes active part in civilization of Micmacs, 237; erects chapel of Notre Dame de la Recouvrance, 238; his bequest to it, 239; appointed governor, by Company of New France (Hundred Associates), 244; his last letter to Cardinal Richelieu, 246; defrays expenses of some families coming to Canada, 250; approves of exclusion of Protestants as settlers, 255; his piety, 258; death, 261; question of his tomb, 261; his will, 265; will set aside, 266; character and fame, 267; monument to, 268, 275; the Father of New France, 269; crossed the Atlantic twenty times, 270; his conduct towards and influence over Indian tribes, 271; his Indian alliances, 272; his writings, 274, 275; eulogies pronounced on, 276-279. F Early career of, 3; sails for St. Lawrence and explores river to Lachine Rapids, 4; explores Baie des Chaleurs, returns to France, 5; accompanies De Monts to Acadia, 7; founder of Quebec, 8; plot against his life, 8; expedition against Iroquois, 9; returns to France and sails again for Canada, 10; returns to France, marries, and sails again for Canada, 11; prospects island of Montreal, 12; returns to France (1611), sails for Canada (1613), again to France, again to Canada (1615), 13; brings out Récollet missionaries, 13; heads another expedition against Iroquois, 14; begins construction of Château St. Louis, 15; surrenders Quebec to English under Kirke, 20; lands in England, 21; urges restitution of Canada, 22; sails for Quebec (1633), 24; death of, 26. L His anxiety for the propagation of the faith, 4; his pious administration, 8.
   Bib.: Works: [OE]uvres de Champlain(Laverdière), 1870; Voyages (Laverdière), 1870; Voyages (trans. by Otis, with memoir by Slafter), 1878-1882; Grant, Voyages of Samuel de Champlain; Bourne, Champlain's Voyages; Biggar, Works of Samuel de Champlain (Champlain Society, in prep.). For bib. of the original editions, see Harrisse, Notes pour Servir, etc. For biog., seeGravier, Vie de Samuel Champlain; Sedgwick, Samuel de Champlain; Dix, Champlain: the Founder of New France; Verreau, Samuel de Champlain (R. S. C., 1899); Parkman, Pioneers of France; Dent, Can. Por.

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